As every cryptographer knows: don’t roll your own security.
Many strategies and protocols have been tried and tested over the years, and in order to discourage people from reinventing the wheel, cryptographers usually reference well-known implementations/ideas that have been proven to work - these concepts are known as cryptographic primitives.
Apart from these basic primitives, there are also lesser-known, advanced cryptographic primitives. Many of them are composed of basic cryptographic primitives:
One-way compression function
Secure multi-party computation
Lattice based encryption
Chameleon hash functions
Fully homomorphic encryption
Physical Unclonable Functions
Several of these cryptographic primitives from the basis of the popular protocols / projects that are in use today. For example, Monero, a cryptocurrency that focuses on privacy, makes use of ring signatures to prevent identities from being revealed via big data analytics.